Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. In the developed world, plumbing system is critical to public health and sanitation. It is used for water supply in buildings, industries, factories, etc. It supplies water to kitchens, toilet outlets via pipes. Plumbing systems have different components that are used for different purposes such as fresh water supply, waste drainage, irrigation, gas pipes for appliances and so on. The type of plumbing system used depends on the application.
Drainage system is used to get rid of human waste through a network of well arranged drainage pipes. People generally don’t know what needs to be done when a problem related to plumbing surfaces. Here we are going to discuss different types of plumbing system.
Types of Plumbing System in Buildings
- Water Supply: Plumbing system in buildings usually consists of an underground tank to which water is supplied by municipal or water department supply lines. The water is supplied to overhead tank from there with the help of pumps and from overhead tank water is supplied to every house.
Water can be directly supplied to kitchens and toilets from the underground tank, but for that it requires pumps. Pumps can provide an uninterrupted supply of water with necessary pressure to outlets so that when one opens the tap, he gets continuous supply of water. Such pumps are called hydro-pneumatic system.
- Sanitary Plumbing: In sanitary plumbing, plumbers have to install sanitary fixtures such as toilets, basins, suspended drains, waste pipes and connect to fixtures.
- Gas Fitting Plumbing: The use of gas is normal in every house and if the gas leaks, it can be very harmful for you and your family. For gas fitting, you have to install and test gas, hot water services, heaters and cook tops. Check the LPG and natural gas fitting lines properly before installing them.
- Drainage Plumbing: When a drainage problem occurs, plumbers have to dig trenches and fix storm water and sanitary drains.. They are also required to clear and repair underground drains. Drainage plumbers can also install sewerage treatment systems.
Different Valves Used in Plumbing
Valves are used to control and regulate flow of water. Different types of valves are used in plumbing applications so you may need to understand when and where to use them.
- Gate Valve: Gate valves could possibly be the most used valve in plumbing applications. These valves control water flow by raising or lowering an internal gate to prevent water from flowing into the other side. Gate valves are very reliable and easy to install. But, one thing that you should keep in mind is that gate valves should never be used to reduce the pressure flowing into the pipe.
- Ball Valve: Ball valves have a ball with a hole that once open allows water to flow into the pipe and prevents water from entering into the pipe. These valves are operated through a lever handle that when parallel to pipe indicates that the valve is open. The handle serves as a visual aide so you get to know that the water is flowing in the direction of the handle.
- Globe Valve: These valves are used to regulate flow in plumbing applications. Globe valves are usually installed when the flow of water needs to be regulated or when it needs to be adjusted regularly. These valves contain a stopper that is raised and lowered by a knob on a shaft, which seals into a baffle to stop the flow.
- Check Valve: Check valves are generally used in water tanks and other water storage applications. These types of valves have one inlet from where water comes in and one outlet from where water goes out. Check valves normally prevent water from flowing in the opposite direction as water would normally move.
- Pressure Reducing Valve: These valves are installed to reduce the water pressure to the desired or accepted limits. They normally have a spring and diaphragm that is adjusted to certain limits depending on the pressure of the water being served. These valves can be installed in copper, PVC and other different pipe types.
- Air Release Valves: Air release valves are installed at each high point of a pressure pipeline. Air release valves are installed to eliminate or mitigate the water hammer issues, as they protect the pipelines against internal pressure. Specially, pneumatic valves help provide safe and precise control of actuators in a compressed air system.
Advantage of Plumbing System in Buildings
- Requirement of overhead tanks is eliminated.
- Equal water pressure to all floors.
- Energy conservation because it eliminates the need of pumps to supply water to higher floors.
To operate such plumbing systems in a building, continuous power supply backed up with generator is required. If there is no power then there can be no supply of water.
The methods used for plumbing installation are as numerous and unique as each home, office or building that requires plumbing repair and services. The main goal of a plumbing installation project is to install a cost and energy efficient system. A plumbing trade handbook or software can accurately determine the cost of a project based on its desired goal. The type of plumbing equipment and plumbing products depend on the operations.
Mapping out the plumbing system is the first step of installation, and a typical map consists of the water-supply system, appliances, fixtures and the drainage system. Plumbers should never use small pipes, because using undersized pipes can lead to a clogged drainage and poor system efficiency. Companies have now developed less-expensive piping made of composite materials.