Planning for site layout is very crucial for the success for the project. Every project has its unique layout. Apart from other uncertainties like project designs, environmental effects and time constraints, site layout planning in itself is a typical multi objective problem.
Layout planning helps to set the relation between the proposed site and its surrounding with respect to existing facilities, communication and approaches. It ensures that the construction of the site will not be impeded by thoughtless storage of materials on particular site locations.
It is important to acquire proper knowledge of the site and it’s surrounding before setting out the layout. The knowledge can be gathered from:
Investigation of a site includes the process of site exploration. It consists of boring, sampling and testing to obtain geotechnical conditions for safety purposes and economical evaluation and design. It helps to recognise ground conditions especially on untouched sites.
Site investigation will help to determine practical limits, depth, thickness, extent and compositions of subsoil and the type of rock. The process will give data about composition of groundwater, hydraulic characteristics of the soil strata, compressibility and strength of the soil.
Steps involved during site investing are:
- Collection of relevant information and data related to site.
- Planning for construction after reviewing data
- Soil exploration
- Field testing for testing quality of soil
- Preparation and documentation of investigation report
- Review and monitoring construction plan.
Soil exploration is an essential step in layout planning. Records and data of soil exploration will help to predict soil quality more accurately. A good design engineering company will always prefer this process to set the base for layout planning.
This process has three steps:
It includes drilling deep into the soil to find how well the base of the soil is. It is done by advance drilling machines or motorized hand boring, deep boring machines or trial pits.
After drilling, the soil samples are taken to classify into two categories: Disturbed and undisturbed sampling.
Disturbed samples are used for specific gravity of soil, determination of liquid limit, soil grain-size analysis and California bearing ratio (CBR). While the Undisturbed samples refers to the stability of the soil that verifies the soil is in perfect condition for construction. These samples are regularly tested to analyse any change in the soil quality.
This step determines the properties of the soil. This can be done by laboratory or field test.
Laboratory test usually gathers data about moisture, compaction, CBR and so forth whereas field test includes Standard Penetration Test (SPT), cone penetration test (CPT) and vane test.
Summarizing the investigation
Site investigation sets up a scope that will only work when a design engineering company has professional engineers. There are many conditions to be met successfully and the process of planning also leaves many areas where experience and individual judgements must be applied.
Site investigation will help to improve the statistics while doing soil inspection. It will reduce the margin of uncertainty.
Site Layout gives important Safety Considerations
Site layout is an important management function which has influence over all aspects of work on construction site. These aspects also include health, safety and productivity. For managing safety, organizations must carry out a framework that can reduce the chances of inadequate structures and facilities.
In many situations, engineers and managers tend to focus on optimizing productivity without giving attention to health and safety implications. A layout with safety precautions on construction site for workers and whole organisation members will be best to implement for construction.
Advantages of layout planning
Good layout planning for site construction minimizes the accidents during construction, travelling time and movement costs of plant, labours and materials, activity interference in construction. A proper layout will enhance productivity and progress.
Effective use of available area
Planning a layout will help to cover every corner of the site and hence capturing the valuable area first. Location and services are helpful to perform multiple functions at the available site area. Development of updated work areas and operator job assignments for full utilization of labour force will help to cover every inch of the area.
Minimizing the production delays
It will help to reduce delays in-between construction. It will always help to track schedules while having construction on a site. An ideal layout planning will reduce the causes of delays and improves work quality.
Improves quality control
A good layout planning will have a major impact on the quality control. For better quality, regular inspection at different stages of construction is needed. It will help in timely execution of tasks during on-site construction.
Proper utilization of labour
Layout planning is always productive in utilization of time and labour. It helps to keep the flow of material handling in such a way that the time of each worker should not extend the time limit.
Planning for the layout of a site is beneficial in a way that it always provides quality construction and work, meeting the requirement with all safety measures.